Early Development in Babies and Toddlers
We hear the term child development a lot, but you may be thinking, what exactly does that cover? Child development refers to an expansion of physical, cognitive, psychological, and socioemotional skills that lead to increased competence, autonomy, and independence for a child. From conception to birth and through early childhood, it is important to ensure children are protected and encouraged to grow across developmental domains.
There are 5 developmental domains, or specified areas of knowledge and activity, in childhood development. They are:
- Cognitive development- the ability to learn, think, and problem solve
- Social-Emotional Development- the ability to interact, self-soothe, associate and actively engage with others
- Speech/language development- the ability to understand and use language
- Fine Motor Development- the ability to use smaller muscles, like hands and fingers
- Gross Motor Development- the ability to use large muscles, including a wide range of leg and arm motions, sitting up, pulling up, etc.
All domains of child development and learning are connected! Over the next few months we will take a look at each domain up close, how they are naturally expressed through behaviors and how caretakers can encourage these behaviors with specific feedback. This series, created and written by Lauren Olivas, a CSUSB Masters in Child Development student, will look at stages within the first three years. Stay tuned each month as we cover skills to watch for and how to identify opportunities to engage.
We’ll begin with cognitive development, which again is the ability to learn, think, and problem solve. How do these skills begin to present themselves in infants and toddlers and what activities and opportunities can we create to support them?
Cognitive development for infants and babies
At 2-months-old, learning and problem-solving skills are being developed. There are a wide range of milestones babies should be working on in the early years of their lives. These include:
- Paying attention to faces
- Following objects with their eyes
- Recognizing people at a distance
- Putting things in their mouth
- Passing toys from one hand to another
- Looking for things to hide and engaging in a peek-a-boo
- Responding to affection and recognizing familiar people from a distance
Activities to support babies:
- Talk, read, sing and play together every day-feeding, dressing, and bath times are great for this.
- Look at pictures and picture books together.
- Hold a toy or rattle above their head and encourage them to reach for it.
- Pay attention to their differing cries to learn what your baby wants.
- Play peek-a-boo.
- Play hide and seek with toys and age appropriate objects.
- Allow your baby to safely reach for toys, kick their feet and explore their surroundings.
- Point to and talk about your surroundings.
- When your baby drops something on the floor, pick it up and give it back to them to explore cause and effect.
- Establish routines and maintain them consistently.
- Describe the behaviors you want instead of those you don’t. For example, tell baby, “feet on the floor” instead of “do not climb.”
Cognitive development in Toddlers
Once your baby transitions to toddlerhood (after one year of age), they should be able to engage in more complex problem-solving and cognitive tasks such as:
- Scribbling on their own
- Participating in caregiving activities for a doll or a stuffed animal
- Engaging in simple pretend play
- Naming items in a picture book (“dog” or “baby”)
- Finding objects hidden under multiple layers
- Completing sentences or rhymes in familiar books
Activities to support toddlers:
- Talk to your child about your daily routines and what you’re doing.
- Work on puzzles together.
- Encourage your child to help with simple household chores.
- Ask lots of simple questions.
- Praise and encourage behaviors you want more of rather than scolding or punishing for the behaviors that you do not.
- Play with blocks and sort shapes.
- Practice identification, ask your child to name parts of their body or what they see out the car window.
- Encourage pretend play.
- Play hide and seek with objects around your home.
Stay tuned for next month when we break down socio-emotional development!
(All content provided by Lauren Olivas, M.A Child Development Candidate, Higher Education Mentor for Quality Counts California)
Other important resources:
- Resources for building quality at home.
- What is Sesame Street in Communities and how does it support families and children’s growth?
- Watch the webinar, “Children’s Emotional Well-Being During Unpredictable Times” from Dr. Eugene Wong on childhood anxiety and how to effectively support a child who worries.
- Finally, if you have questions of concerns about your child’s development or behavior, check out Help Me Grow Inland Empire for developmental screening information.